GO Term Description Reference
lipid metabolic process The disorder of lipid metabolism is pathologically linked to hyperlipidemia, lipid storage disease, obesity and other related diseases.Abnormalities of related genes, hormones and enzymes lead to lipids metabolism disorders, resulting in cardiovascular disorders (CVD), metabolic diseases and cancers, etc. Long, J., Zhang, C. J., Zhu, N., Du, K., Yin, Y. F., Tan, X., … Qin, L. (2018). Lipid metabolism and carcinogenesis, cancer development. American journal of cancer research, 8(5), 778–791.
Cytokines Cytokines play important roles in cancer initiation, progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and immunotherapy. Cytokines are major players in cancer-related inflammation.Cytokines stimulate host immune responses not only against pathogens, but against tumors. Host-derived cytokines can inhibit tumor progression as well as promote proliferation, decrease apoptosis, and foster invasion and metastasis. Guven-Maiorov, Emine et al. “Structural pathways of cytokines may illuminate their roles in regulation of cancer development and immunotherapy.” Cancers vol. 6,2 663-83. 25 Mar. 2014, doi:10.3390/cancers6020663
Catalytic activity Catalytic activity represents correlations between the chemical composition and physical structure of a material. The relative reactivities of the lower alkanes in hydrogenolysis on a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst depend on the H2 pressure used, as do those of a Ru/Al2O3 catalyst, pretreated in various ways, for propane hydrogenolysis. Bond, G.C., Cunningham, R.H. & Slaa, J.C. Top Catal (1994) 1: 19. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01379572 What do we mean by “catalytic activity” ,Kluwer Academic Publishers,Print:1022-5528 April 1994, Volume 1, Issue 1–2, pp 19–24
Since their catalytic activity relies on the presence of a suitable formate substrate, they also show some selectivity for ovarian cancer cells when compared to non-cancerous ovarian and lung fibroblast cells. One of these osmium complexes is also effective in attacking PC3 prostate cancer cells, albeit in this case rather unselectively, as its substrate N-formylmethionine is present in target PC3 prostate cancer cells as well as in normal cells. Ney, Yannick et al. “Small Molecule Catalysts with Therapeutic Potential.” Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 23,4 765. 27 Mar. 2018, doi:10.3390/molecules23040765
cellular process Collective cell movement is an essential process in many events, including wound healing and embryonic development.Fundamental cellular processes drive collective cell movement by means of integrated approaches, including precise quantification measurements and mathematical modeling of measured data. On fundamental cellular processes for emergence of collective epithelial movement Tsuyoshi Hirashima, Yoichiroh Hosokawa, Takanori Iino, Masaharu Nagayama Biology Open 2013 2: 660-666; doi: 10.1242/bio.20134523
In most of the tumors, inactivation of the tumor suppressor genes eliminates the negative regulation of these genes over cellular proliferation that leads to abnormal cell proliferation, therefore, causing cancer. Imran, Aman et al. “Role of Molecular Biology in Cancer Treatment: A Review Article.” Iranian journal of public health vol. 46,11 (2017): 1475-1485.
MAPK cascade Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of ubiquitous proline-directed, protein-serine/threonine kinases, which participate in signal transduction pathways that control intracellular events including acute responses to hormones and major developmental changes in organisms Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Pathways: Regulation and Physiological Functions Gray Pearson, Fred Robinson, Tara Beers Gibson, Bing-e Xu, Mahesh Karandikar, Kevin Berman, Melanie H. Cobb Endocrine Reviews, Volume 22, Issue 2, 1 April 2001, Pages 153–183, https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv.22.2.0428
Therapies targeted toward MAPK/ERK components have variable response rates when used in different solid tumors, such as colorectal cancer and ovarian cancer. Understanding the differential nature of activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in each tumor type is critical in developing single and combination regimens, as different tumors have unique mechanisms of primary and secondary signaling and subsequent sensitivity to drugs Burotto, M., Chiou, V. L., Lee, J. M., & Kohn, E. C. (2014). The MAPK pathway across different malignancies: a new perspective. Cancer, 120(22), 3446–3456. doi:10.1002/cncr.28864
protein binding Protein binding is defined either as the percentage of drug bound (Cbound/Ctotal × 100) or as the unbound (free) fraction (Cunbound/Ctotal). Fetal and Neonatal Physiology (Fifth Edition) KarelAllegaertJohn N.Van Den Anker, 6 July 2016. Volume 1, 2017, Pages 208-221.e4 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-35214-7.00020-2
The protein binding determined in the plasma of cancer patients was not quantitatively different, except for variability, from that observed in the plasma of healthy donors. Examination of relationships between the unbound brequinar fraction and pharmacokinetics suggested that plasma protein binding was not a major determinant of brequinar disposition in cancer patients. King SY, Agra AM, Shen HS, et al. Protein binding of brequinar in the plasma of healthy donors and cancer patients and analysis of the relationship between protein binding and pharmacokinetics in cancer patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1994; 35: 101–108.
metabolic process The Metabolic Pathway Collection from EMP is an extraction of data from the larger Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways database (EMP). The metabolic pathway collection: an update ,Evgeni Selkov, Miliusha Galimova, Igor Goryanin, Yuri Gretchkin Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 25, Issue 1, 1 January 1997, Pages 37–38, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.1.37
Cancer metabolism is an essential aspect of tumorigenesis, as cancer cells have increased energy requirements in comparison to normal cells. Thus, an enhanced metabolism is needed in order to accommodate tumor cells' accelerated biological functions, including increased proliferation, vigorous migration during metastasis, and adaptation to different tissues from the primary invasion site.The main metabolic alterations of the tumor cells include an increased aerobic glycolysis, pH deregulation, lipid metabolism dysregulation, increased generation of ROS, as well as disturbances of enzyme activities. These traits lead to apoptotic pathways alterations, genomic and transcriptomic modification, finally inducing pro-tumorigenic features. Neagu M, Constantin C, Popescu ID, Zipeto D, Tzanakakis G, Nikitovic D, Fenga C, Stratakis CA, Spandidos DA and Tsatsakis AM: Inflammation and metabolism in cancer cell - mitochondria key player. Front Oncol. 9:3482019. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI
structural constituent of ribosome The ribosomal proteins is to promote the folding and stabilization of ribosomal RNA. The L14 structure is consistent with this notion, and it suggests that the RNA binds in two sites The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L14 reveals an important organizational component of the translational apparatus Christopher Davies1 Stephen W White V Ramakrishnan https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-2126(96)00009-3
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine composed of numerous distinct proteins and nucleic acids and is responsible for protein synthesis in every living cell.Qualitative modifications in ribosomes can also dictate their oncogenic potential, as suggested by the elevated incidence of myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia, colon carcinoma and osteogenic sarcoma caused by heterozygous mutations in RP genes in patients with inherited ribosomopathies Pelletier J, Thomas G, Volarevic S. 2018. Ribosome biogenesis in cancer: new players and therapeutic avenues. Nat. Rev. Cancer 18: 51–63
oxidoreductase activity Oxidoreductases are most often employed in specific segments of the chemical industry and often in the form of whole-cell catalysts (e.g. P450 monooxygenases for selective hydroxylations) and not as isolated protein biocatalysts in medium and large scale biotransformations. Oxidoreductases on their way to industrial biotransformations Biotechnology Advances Volume 35, Issue 6, 1 November 2017, Pages 815-831
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) plays a role in both metabolic syndrome and cancer. Uric acid, ROS and RNS produced by XOR cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of MS and cancer. M.G. Battelli, M. Bortolotti, L. Polito, A. Bolognesi Metabolic syndrome and cancer risk: the role of xanthine oxidoreductase Redox Biol., 21 (2019), p. 101070
extracellular matrix The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, and provides not only essential physical scaffolding for the cellular constituents but also initiates crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues that are required for tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. The extracellular matrix at a glance ,Christian Frantz, Kathleen M. Stewart, Valerie M. Weaver, Journal of Cell Science 2010 123: 4195-4200; doi: 10.1242/jcs.023820
Extracellular matrix can profoundly influence recruitment of immune cells into the tumor microenvironment.Due to increased interstitial pressure, unresolved loss of tissue homeostasis has been linked to an elevated risk of various conditions, such as osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Walker, Cameron et al. “Role of Extracellular Matrix in Development and Cancer Progression.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 19,10 3028. 4 Oct. 2018, doi:10.3390/ijms19103028